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Learn more about Amazon Prime. A vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void".

An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is considerably lower than atmospheric pressure.

The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum.

In the study of electromagnetism in the 19th century, vacuum was thought to be filled with a medium called aether. In modern particle physics, the vacuum state is considered the ground state of a field.

Vacuum has been a frequent topic of philosophical debate since ancient Greek times, but was not studied empirically until the 17th century.

Evangelista Torricelli produced the first laboratory vacuum in , and other experimental techniques were developed as a result of his theories of atmospheric pressure.

A Torricellian vacuum is created by filling a tall glass container closed at one end with mercury, and then inverting it in a bowl to contain the mercury see below.

Vacuum became a valuable industrial tool in the 20th century with the introduction of incandescent light bulbs and vacuum tubes , and a wide array of vacuum technologies has since become available.

The recent development of human spaceflight has raised interest in the impact of vacuum on human health, and on life forms in general.

Vacuum is one of the few words in the English language that contains two consecutive letters u.

Historically, there has been much dispute over whether such a thing as a vacuum can exist. Ancient Greek philosophers debated the existence of a vacuum, or void, in the context of atomism , which posited void and atom as the fundamental explanatory elements of physics.

Following Plato , even the abstract concept of a featureless void faced considerable skepticism: it could not be apprehended by the senses, it could not, itself, provide additional explanatory power beyond the physical volume with which it was commensurate and, by definition, it was quite literally nothing at all, which cannot rightly be said to exist.

Aristotle believed that no void could occur naturally, because the denser surrounding material continuum would immediately fill any incipient rarity that might give rise to a void.

In his Physics , book IV, Aristotle offered numerous arguments against the void: for example, that motion through a medium which offered no impediment could continue ad infinitum , there being no reason that something would come to rest anywhere in particular.

Although Lucretius argued for the existence of vacuum in the first century BC and Hero of Alexandria tried unsuccessfully to create an artificial vacuum in the first century AD.

In the medieval Muslim world , the physicist and Islamic scholar, Al-Farabi Alpharabius, — , conducted a small experiment concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water.

Using geometry , Ibn al-Haytham mathematically demonstrated that place al-makan is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of a containing body.

European scholars such as Roger Bacon , Blasius of Parma and Walter Burley in the 13th and 14th century focused considerable attention on issues concerning the concept of a vacuum.

Eventually following Stoic physics in this instance, scholars from the 14th century onward increasingly departed from the Aristotelian perspective in favor of a supernatural void beyond the confines of the cosmos itself, a conclusion widely acknowledged by the 17th century, which helped to segregate natural and theological concerns.

Although Descartes agreed with the contemporary position, that a vacuum does not occur in nature, the success of his namesake coordinate system and more implicitly, the spatial—corporeal component of his metaphysics would come to define the philosophically modern notion of empty space as a quantified extension of volume.

By the ancient definition however, directional information and magnitude were conceptually distinct. Medieval thought experiments into the idea of a vacuum considered whether a vacuum was present, if only for an instant, between two flat plates when they were rapidly separated.

The commonly held view that nature abhorred a vacuum was called horror vacui. There was even speculation that even God could not create a vacuum if he wanted and the Paris condemnations of Bishop Etienne Tempier , which required there to be no restrictions on the powers of God, led to the conclusion that God could create a vacuum if he so wished.

The 17th century saw the first attempts to quantify measurements of partial vacuum. In , Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump [20] and conducted his famous Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, showing that, owing to atmospheric pressure outside the hemispheres, teams of horses could not separate two hemispheres from which the air had been partially evacuated.

Robert Boyle improved Guericke's design and with the help of Robert Hooke further developed vacuum pump technology. A number of electrical properties become observable at this vacuum level, which renewed interest in further research.

While outer space provides the most rarefied example of a naturally occurring partial vacuum, the heavens were originally thought to be seamlessly filled by a rigid indestructible material called aether.

Borrowing somewhat from the pneuma of Stoic physics , aether came to be regarded as the rarefied air from which it took its name, see Aether mythology.

Early theories of light posited a ubiquitous terrestrial and celestial medium through which light propagated. Additionally, the concept informed Isaac Newton 's explanations of both refraction and of radiant heat.

While the Earth does, in fact, move through a relatively dense medium in comparison to that of interstellar space, the drag is so minuscule that it could not be detected.

In , astronomer Henry Pickering commented: "While the interstellar absorbing medium may be simply the ether, [it] is characteristic of a gas, and free gaseous molecules are certainly there".

Later, in , Paul Dirac proposed a model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles possessing negative energy, called the Dirac sea.

This theory helped refine the predictions of his earlier formulated Dirac equation , and successfully predicted the existence of the positron , confirmed two years later.

Werner Heisenberg 's uncertainty principle , formulated in , predicted a fundamental limit within which instantaneous position and momentum , or energy and time can be measured.

This has far reaching consequences on the "emptiness" of space between particles. In the late 20th century, so-called virtual particles that arise spontaneously from empty space were confirmed.

The strictest criterion to define a vacuum is a region of space and time where all the components of the stress—energy tensor are zero.

This means that this region is devoid of energy and momentum, and by consequence, it must be empty of particles and other physical fields such as electromagnetism that contain energy and momentum.

In general relativity , a vanishing stress—energy tensor implies, through Einstein field equations , the vanishing of all the components of the Ricci tensor.

Vacuum does not mean that the curvature of space-time is necessarily flat: the gravitational field can still produce curvature in a vacuum in the form of tidal forces and gravitational waves technically, these phenomena are the components of the Weyl tensor.

The black hole with zero electric charge is an elegant example of a region completely "filled" with vacuum, but still showing a strong curvature.

In classical electromagnetism , the vacuum of free space , or sometimes just free space or perfect vacuum , is a standard reference medium for electromagnetic effects.

The vacuum of classical electromagnetism can be viewed as an idealized electromagnetic medium with the constitutive relations in SI units: [33].

Here r is a spatial location and t is time. In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory , the vacuum is defined as the state that is, the solution to the equations of the theory with the lowest possible energy the ground state of the Hilbert space.

In quantum electrodynamics this vacuum is referred to as ' QED vacuum ' to distinguish it from the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics , denoted as QCD vacuum.

QED vacuum is a state with no matter particles hence the name , and no photons. As described above, this state is impossible to achieve experimentally.

Even if every matter particle could somehow be removed from a volume, it would be impossible to eliminate all the blackbody photons.

Nonetheless, it provides a good model for realizable vacuum, and agrees with a number of experimental observations as described next.

QED vacuum has interesting and complex properties. In QED vacuum, the electric and magnetic fields have zero average values, but their variances are not zero.

Vacuum fluctuations are an essential and ubiquitous part of quantum field theory. Some experimentally verified effects of vacuum fluctuations include spontaneous emission and the Lamb shift.

Theoretically, in QCD multiple vacuum states can coexist. For theories obtained by quantization of a classical theory, each stationary point of the energy in the configuration space gives rise to a single vacuum.

String theory is believed to have a huge number of vacua — the so-called string theory landscape. Outer space has very low density and pressure, and is the closest physical approximation of a perfect vacuum.

But no vacuum is truly perfect, not even in interstellar space, where there are still a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.

Stars, planets, and moons keep their atmospheres by gravitational attraction, and as such, atmospheres have no clearly delineated boundary: the density of atmospheric gas simply decreases with distance from the object.

The Earth's atmospheric pressure drops to about 3. Beyond this line, isotropic gas pressure rapidly becomes insignificant when compared to radiation pressure from the Sun and the dynamic pressure of the solar winds , so the definition of pressure becomes difficult to interpret.

The thermosphere in this range has large gradients of pressure, temperature and composition, and varies greatly due to space weather.

Astrophysicists prefer to use number density to describe these environments, in units of particles per cubic centimetre. Most artificial satellites operate in this region called low Earth orbit and must fire their engines every couple of weeks or a few times a year depending on solar activity.

All of the observable universe is filled with large numbers of photons , the so-called cosmic background radiation , and quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos.

The quality of a vacuum is indicated by the amount of matter remaining in the system, so that a high quality vacuum is one with very little matter left in it.

Vacuum is primarily measured by its absolute pressure , but a complete characterization requires further parameters, such as temperature and chemical composition.

One of the most important parameters is the mean free path MFP of residual gases, which indicates the average distance that molecules will travel between collisions with each other.

As the gas density decreases, the MFP increases, and when the MFP is longer than the chamber, pump, spacecraft, or other objects present, the continuum assumptions of fluid mechanics do not apply.

This vacuum state is called high vacuum , and the study of fluid flows in this regime is called particle gas dynamics.

The Crookes radiometer turns when the MFP is larger than the size of the vanes. Vacuum quality is subdivided into ranges according to the technology required to achieve it or measure it.

These ranges do not have universally agreed definitions, but a typical distribution is shown in the following table. Vacuum is measured in units of pressure , typically as a subtraction relative to ambient atmospheric pressure on Earth.

But the amount of relative measurable vacuum varies with local conditions. On the surface of Venus , where ground level atmospheric pressure is much higher than on Earth, much higher relative vacuum readings would be possible.

On the surface of the moon with almost no atmosphere, it would be extremely difficult to create a measurable vacuum relative to the local environment.

Similarly, much higher than normal relative vacuum readings are possible deep in the Earth's ocean. A submarine maintaining an internal pressure of 1 atmosphere submerged to a depth of 10 atmospheres 98 metres; a 9.

Therefore, to properly understand the following discussions of vacuum measurement, it is important that the reader assumes the relative measurements are being done on Earth at sea level, at exactly 1 atmosphere of ambient atmospheric pressure.

The SI unit of pressure is the pascal symbol Pa , but vacuum is often measured in torrs , named for Torricelli, an early Italian physicist — Vacuum is often also measured on the barometric scale or as a percentage of atmospheric pressure in bars or atmospheres.

Low vacuum is often measured in millimeters of mercury mmHg or pascals Pa below standard atmospheric pressure.

In other words, most low vacuum gauges that read, for example Many devices are used to measure the pressure in a vacuum, depending on what range of vacuum is needed.

Hydrostatic gauges such as the mercury column manometer consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to different pressures.

The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure differential between the two ends of the tube.

The simplest design is a closed-end U-shaped tube, one side of which is connected to the region of interest. Any fluid can be used, but mercury is preferred for its high density and low vapour pressure.

An important variation is the McLeod gauge which isolates a known volume of vacuum and compresses it to multiply the height variation of the liquid column.

Other vacuum gauges can measure lower pressures, but only indirectly by measurement of other pressure-controlled properties. Microstructural evolution and constitutive models to predict hot deformation behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy Y.

Lin Fu Qi Nong Dong Xu Wen Y. Sourbh Thakur Penny P. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of N, P, co-doped carbon quantum dots: An insight from experimental and computational approach - Open access H.

Yashwanth Sachin R. Hans Högberg Chung-Chuan Lai Most Downloaded Articles The most downloaded articles from Vacuum in the last 90 days.

Recent Articles Recently published articles from Vacuum. Most Cited Articles The most cited articles published since , extracted from Scopus.

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